Selenium 面向页面(page object)

12 Feb 2018

面向页面编写测试用例的好处

来自官网的例子:

1. Test.case

import unittest
from selenium import webdriver
import page

class PythonOrgSearch(unittest.TestCase):
    """A sample test class to show how page object works"""

    def setUp(self):
        self.driver = webdriver.Firefox() # 创建 Firefox 的实例
        self.driver.get("http://www.python.org")

    def test_search_in_python_org(self):
        """
        Tests python.org search feature. Searches for the word "pycon" then verified that some results show up.
        Note that it does not look for any particular text in search results page. This test verifies that
        the results were not empty.
        """

        #Load the main page. In this case the home page of Python.org.
        main_page = page.MainPage(self.driver) # 从 【主页】类创建一个实例,传入 driver参数
        #Checks if the word "Python" is in title
        assert main_page.is_title_matches(), "python.org title doesn't match."
        #Sets the text of search textbox to "pycon"
        main_page.search_text_element = "pycon"
        main_page.click_go_button()
        search_results_page = page.SearchResultsPage(self.driver)
        #Verifies that the results page is not empty
        assert search_results_page.is_results_found(), "No results found."

    def tearDown(self):
        self.driver.close()

if __name__ == "__main__":
    unittest.main()

2. Page object classes

此文件用于封装各页面。比如主页,登录页,

# page.py
from element import BasePageElement
from locators import MainPageLocators

class SearchTextElement(BasePageElement):
    """This class gets the search text from the specified locator"""

    # The locator for search box where search string is entered
    locator = 'q'


class BasePage(object):
    """Base class to initialize the base page that will be called from all pages"""

    def __init__(self, driver):
        self.driver = driver


class MainPage(BasePage):
    """Home page action methods come here. I.e. Python.org"""

    #Declares a variable that will contain the retrieved text
    search_text_element = SearchTextElement()

    def is_title_matches(self):
        """Verifies that the hardcoded text "Python" appears in page title"""
        return "Python" in self.driver.title

    def click_go_button(self):
        """Triggers the search"""
        element = self.driver.find_element(*MainPageLocators.GO_BUTTON)
        element.click()


class SearchResultsPage(BasePage):
    """Search results page action methods come here"""

    def is_results_found(self):
        # Probably should search for this text in the specific page
        # element, but as for now it works fine
        return "No results found." not in self.driver.page_source

3. Page elements

element.py 定义了页面元素

# element.py
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait

class BasePageElement(object):
    """Base page class that is initialized on every page object class."""

    def __set__(self, obj, value):
        """Sets the text to the value supplied"""
        driver = obj.driver
        WebDriverWait(driver, 100).until(
            lambda driver: driver.find_element_by_name(self.locator))
        driver.find_element_by_name(self.locator).clear()
        driver.find_element_by_name(self.locator).send_keys(value)

    def __get__(self, obj, owner):
        """Gets the text of the specified object"""
        driver = obj.driver
        WebDriverWait(driver, 100).until(
            lambda driver: driver.find_element_by_name(self.locator))
        element = driver.find_element_by_name(self.locator)
        return element.get_attribute("value")

4. locators

locators.py 文件用于定位元素,在这个例子中,同一个页面的定位器属于同一个类。

# locators.py
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By

class MainPageLocators(object):
    """A class for main page locators. All main page locators should come here"""
    GO_BUTTON = (By.ID, 'submit')

class SearchResultsPageLocators(object):
    """A class for search results locators. All search results locators should come here"""
    pass